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Phonogram-to-Sound Chart

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Courtesy of the Reading Reform Foundation

Below are 70 phonograms which represent 45 basic sounds of the English language. Also included are 2 blends represented by phonographs and 8 less frequently-used phonograms.

Phonograms which represent one sound

b

d

f

h

j

k

l

m

n

bib

dad

fife

ha

jug

kit

lot

mum

no

p

qu (kw)

r

t

v

w

x (ks)

z

ai (A)

pop

quid

ruff

tick

van

wow

ax

zap

paid

ar

au (aw)

aw

ay (A)

ci (sh)

ck (k)

dge (j)

ear (er)

ee (E)

far

pause

saw

pay

special

tick

badge

early

bee

eigh (A)

er

gh (g)

gn (n)

igh (I)

ir (er)

kn (n)

ng

oa (O)

eight

her

ghost

gnat

high

first

know

sing

oar

oe (O)

oi (oy)

or

oy

ph (f)

sh

ti (sh)

ur (er)

wh (hw)

toe

coin

or

boy

phase

ship

ration

nurse

what

wor (er)

wr (r)

             

works

wrap

             
  war (or)   ue            
  warm   due            

Phonograms which represent two or three sounds

c
(k,s)

e
(e,E)

g
(g,j)

i
(i,I)

s
(s,z)

ew (oo,U)

ow
(ow, O)

si
(sh, zh)

th

cake
c2ite

ebb
be2

gag
g2em

it
I2

sit
as2

grew
jew2el

now
sow2

session
visi2on

think
th
e

ui
(oo,U)

a
(a,A,
o-ah)

o
(ah,O,
oo)

u (u,U,oo)

y
(y,i,I)

ch (ch,k,sh)

ea (E,e,A)

ed (ed,d,t)

ei
(E,A,i)

fruit
jui2ce

apt
A
2
a3ll

odd
no2
do3

us
u2nit
pu3t

yam
gy2m
by3

chest
ch2ord
ch3ef

eat
hea2d
stea3k

graded
filled2
ticked3

receive
vei2n
forei3gn

Phonograms which represent three or more sounds

ey
(A,E,i)

ie
(E,I,i)

oo (oo,u3,O)

ou (ow, O,oo,u)

ough

       

they
key2
valley3

piece
lie2
lilie3s

boo
coo2k
doo3r

aloud
fou2r
you3
variou4s

dough       O
through2    oo
rough3b    uff
cough4b     off
bough5t  o(ah)
plough6
   ow
lough7  (ah'k)   

     

Rarely used phonograms

ce=sh

eu=U

pn=n

rh=r

s=sh

tch=ch

x=z

i=E

 

oceaan

Euarope

pnaeu-
matic

rhaubarb

saure

matcha

Xaerox

mosquito

 
 

a Denotes less frequently used phonograms.

b Denotes blends represented by phonograms.

Bold green indicates additions by the AVKO editor

Sound-to-Phonogram Chart

Below are 70 phonograms which represent 45 basic sounds of the English language. Also included are 2 blends represented by phonographs and 8 less frequently-used phonograms. Arranged by sounds.

Sounds represented
by one phonogram

a

b

h

l

m

p

qu

v

w

apt

bib

ha

lot

mum

pop

quid

van

wow

x

y

ar

ng

or

th

th2

wh

 

ax

yam

far

sing

or

think

the

what

vision

Sounds represented
by two
phonograms

d

e

f

g

s

t

u

u3

  /zh/

dad    
filled2

ebb
hea2d

fife
phase

gag
ghost

sit
c2ite

tick
ticked3

us
variou4s

pu3t
coo2k

visi2on
trea
sure

ch

ed

oy

Blends

off

uff

     

chest
matcha

graded

boy
coin

 

cough4

rough3

     

Sounds represented
by three
phonograms

j

r

z

ow

         

jug
g2em
badge

ruff
wrap
rhaubara

zap
as2
Xaerox

now
aloud
plough6

 

       

Sounds represented by four or five
phonograms

i

i2 (I)

k

n

u2 (U)

er

o(ah)

   

it
forei3gn
gy2m
lilies
valley3

I2
lie2
high
by3

kit
tick
cake
ch2ord

no
know
gnat
pnaeu-
matic

u2nit
jew2el
jui2ce
Euarope

her
first
nurse
works
early

odd
a3ll
saw
pau
se
bough5t

 

 

Sounds represented by six or more phonograms

a2 (A)

e2 (E)

o2 (O)

oo

sh

       

A2
paid
pay
eight
they
stea3k
vei3n

be2
bee
key2
ea
t
piece
receive
mosquito

no2
doo3r
sow2
oar    
toe
fou2r
dough

boot
do3
grew
suit
through2
you3

ship
ch3ef
ration
suspension
session
fashion
special
saure
pressure
oceaan
anxious

       
 

a Denotes less frequently used phonograms.

Bold green indicates additions by the AVKO editor

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