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An Index of Basic Phonic Patterns by Vowel Types

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from The Teaching of Reading: a Continuum from Kindergarten through College

Use this index to locate additional rimes (word families) that illustrate phonic principles taught in any reading series.

The following charts list various phonic patterns or word families associated with specific vowel patterns.  To make it as easy as possible for a teacher or diagnostician to use, we have listed the most common patterns and arranged them according to the basic fourteen vowel phonemes in English.

We list sample words first, so that a teacher or diagnostician can use these lists diagnostically and/or prescriptively.  That is, a teacher can have a student attempt to either read or spell the words from a list.  If while attempting to read the LONG A list the student misses the words: chair, paint, praise, and afraid, the teacher may consult the pages in The Patterns of English Spelling or Word Families in Sentence Context where additional words having the same basic patterns may be found.  That way, the student may end up learning fifty or more words for the price of learning just one pattern.

You can view a sample page (PDF) by clicking on one of the Sample Words in color.

LONG A

Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page
pain ai ain 419 hate a_e ate 347
sail ai ail 411 cake a_e ake 328
claim ai aim 417 made a_e ade 321
paint ai aint 253 save a_e ave 324
wait ai ait 426 place a_e ace 343
praise ai aise 360 blaze a_e aze 360
afraid ai aid 401 stale a_e ale 330
pay ay ay 301 tape a_e ape 341
eight ei eight 426 page a_e age 327
range a_ _e ange 367 game a_e ame 332
table a_ _e able 610 safe a_e afe 324

Long E

Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page
seat ea eat 427 sleep ee eep 424
meal ea eal 412 need ee eed 402
weak ea eak 408 see ee ee 305
please ea ease 435 peel ee eel 412
teach ea each 437 sneeze ee eeze 435
leave ea eave 441 peek ee eek 408
cheap ea eap 424 sheet ee eet 427
clean ea ean 420 speech ee eech 437
feast ea east 438 green ee een 420
sea ea ea 305 sleeve ee eeve 441
beneath ea eath 275 teeth ee eeth 278
leaf ea ea 406 key ey ey 306
believe ie ieve 406 we e e 304
field ie ield 442 Steve e_e eve 325
piece ie iece 432 Steven e_e even 858
LONG I
Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page
light igh ight 428 size i_e ize 361
high igh igh 308 hide i_e ide 322
kind i ind 229 white i_e ite 357
wild i ild 240 line i_e ine 337
tie ie ie 308 pipe i_e ipe 341
Einstein ei ein 442 time i_e ime 343
buy uy uy 308 mice i_e ice 344
try y y 308 tribe i_e ibe 320
smile i_e ile 330 like i_e ike 329
drive i_e ive 325 life i_e ive 325
LONG O
Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page
road oa oad 403 stone o_e one 339
coat oa oat 429 more o_e (-r) ore 526
loan oa oan 421 note o_e ote 358
boast oa oast 438 nose o_e ose 364
soak oa oak 409 coke o_e oke 329
loam oa oam 418 hope o_e ope 342
coax oa oax 268 code o_e ode 323
loaf oa oaf 407 dose o_e ose 364
goal oa oal 413 robe o_e obe 320
go o o 309 stove o_e ove 326
bold o old 241 hole o_e ole 331
roll o oll 153 home o_e ome 333
bolt o olt 248 froze o_e oze 364
most o ost 235 toe oe oe 311
both o oth 277 slow ow ow 310
won't o ont 249 grown ow own 421
bowl ow owl 415
LONG OO
Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page
igloo oo oo 312 goose oo_e oose 435
spoon oo oon 422 snooze oo_e ooze 435
loop oo oop 425 groove oo_e oove 326
loot oo oot 429 choose oo_e oose 435
cool oo ool 414 include u_e ude 323
room oo oom 418 we use u_e use 365
proof oo oof 407 the use u_e use 346
pooch oo ooch 437 truce u_e uce 346
noodle oo oodle 611 rule u_e ule 331
food oo ood 404 tune u_e une 340
boost oo oost 438 tube u_e ube 320
Snoopy oo oopy 719 lose o_e ose 365
you ou ou 317 to o o 312
youth ou outh 277 true ue ue 314
truth u uth 278
LONG "OW!"
Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page
cow ow ow 318 count ou ount 252
town ow own 421 grouch ou ouch 437
prowl ow owl 415 proud ou oud 403
ground ou ound 231 mouth ou outh 277
shout ou out 431 mouse ou_e ouse 433
LONG AW
Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page
draw aw aw 319 cloth o oth 276
crawl aw awl 416 long o ong 219
lawn aw awn 423 boss o oss 159
hawk aw awk 410 dog o og 114
talk a alk 410 lost o ost 235
tall a all 147 honk o onk 222
wash a w- 504 soft o oft 232
LONG OY
Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page
boy oy oy 303 boil oi oil 415
join oi oin 423 avoid oi oid 403
joint oi oint 253 choice oi_e oice 433
moist oi oist 438 noise oi_e oise 436
SHORT uu
Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page
cook oo ook 409 would ou ould 241
wood oo ood 404 pull u ull 155
foot oo oot 429 push u ush 211
SHORT A
Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page
flag a ag 111 black a ack 214
trap a ap 126 cash a ash 209
fat a at 131 land a and 227
jam a am 116 bank a ank 220
cab a ab 101 stamp a amp 269
plan a an 121 plant a ant 249
bad a ad 106 rang a ang 217
pal a al 146 fast a ast 233
badge a_ _e adge 212 bath a ath 275
mask a ask 271 glass a ass 156
ranch a anch 206
SHORT E
Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page
let e et 132 send e end 228
red e ed 107 best e est 234
leg e eg 112 went e ent 250
step e ep 127 French e ench 206
them e em 117 wreck e eck 215
web e eb 102 stretch e etch 202
men e en 122 fresh e esh 209
mess e ess 157 left e eft 232
hex e ex 266 help e elp 246
bread ea ead 402 shelf e elf 243
sweat ea eat 427 fence e ence 257
death ea eath 275 next e ext 266
SHORT I
Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page
trip i ip 128 sick i ick 215
sit i it 133 wish i ish 210
tin i in 123 think i ink 221
hid i id 108 thing i ing 218
big i ig 113 print i int 251
him i im 118 list i ist 235
fib i ib 103 gift i ift 232
miss i iss 158 limp i imp 270
stiff i iff 143 crisp i isp 273
still i ill 151 frisk i isk 271
fizz i izz 138 with i ith 276
mix i ix 267 live i ive 325
SHORT O ("AH")
Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page
not o ot 134 clock o ock 216
Bob o ob 104 stomp o omp 269
rod o od 109 notch o otch 204
Don o on 124 blond o ond 230
Tom o om 119 dodge o_ _e odge 212
box o ox 268 calm a alm 246
doll o oll 153
SHORT U
Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page Sample Word Vowel Pattern Rime Page
tub u ub 105 bump u ump 270
sun u un 125 rush u ush 211
bug u ug 115 luck u uck 216
bum u um 120 trunk u unk 222
but u ut 135 must u ust 236
mud u ud 110 bunch u unch 207
cup u up 130 hunt u unt 230
bus u us 160 refund u und 230
from o om 828 budge u udge 212
won o on 832 touch ou ouch 205
front o ont 249 dunce u unce 257
dull u ull 155 flood oo ood 404
stuff u uff 145 come o_e ome 333
fuss u uss 160 love o_e ove 325
fuzz u uzz 140

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